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PostPosted: Mon Mar 27, 2006 11:37 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Scientific American
Magazine Subscription
Lady Luck
More Americans cannot resist rolling the dice
By Roger Doyle
April, 2006




Quote:
Roulette on Reservations
In the late 1980s changes in the law made it far easier for Native American tribes to open casinos, leading to widespread proliferation of gambling on reservations. By 2003 these casinos provided 240,000 jobs in the U.S., thus leading to a significant diminution of poverty on those reservations. Still, it would be a mistake to conclude that gambling has solved the socioeconomic issues facing Native Americans. Many geographically isolated tribal casinos generate liuttle revenue, and a substantial minority of tribes have not adopted casinos. (-- p. 30)


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 07, 2006 8:39 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Smithsonian
Magazine Subscription
Students of the Game
When the Aztec and Maya played it
500 to 1,000 years ago, the losers
sometimes lost their heads - literally.
Today scholars are visiting remote
Mexican villages to study the oldest
sport in the Americas, Ulama, now
on the verge of extinction
.
By John Fox
Beginning at p. 110
April, 2006




Quote:
Sixteenth-century Spanish chroniclers of the New World, most of them Franciscan friars bent on spreading the Christian faith, described with awe their first encounters with this peculiar sport, played with a solid ball that appeared to have magical properties. Hernando Cortes was so impressed with the game that he brought a team of players back to Spain in 1528 to perform in the royal court. But the friars soon learned that for the Aztec and other Mesoamericans, ullamaliztli was as much religious rite as sandlot sport. In their codices, or sacred books, the Aztec compared the bouncing ball to the cosmic journey of the sun into and out of the underworld. Highly ritualized ballgames enacted at key religious festivals helped to ensure the continuous cycles of nature and the cosmos. Ball courts in Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital (in what is now Mexico City), were adorned with scultptures depicting local gods and other supernatural beings. Priests initiated important games with offerings of incense in nearby temples.

At least some of the games saw human sacrifice. The losing players - or unlucky stand-ins captured in battle - could literally lose their heads in post-game ceremonies. In one graphic depiction on the walls of the mopnumental ninth-century Maya ball court at Chichen Itza in the Yucatan, serpents and squash plants sprout from the neck of a kneeling, decapitated player, bestowing fertility on the land and the living. A rival player wields a stone knife and the freshly severed head as his grisly trophy. (-- pgs. 115-116)


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PostPosted: Thu May 04, 2006 3:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

Another 'inconvenient truth': Online gambling is greener and better for the planet. SIGN UP today for our Gamble Green Challenge to help stop global warming!


Mohawk Saint
Catherine Tekakwitha and the Jesuits
Hardcover
By Allan Greer




Quote:
Passing through once-thriving native villages suddenly transformed into sick wards and charnel houses, the missionaries were desperate to baptize the dying. They sometimes tried to cure the ill, distributing sugar, raisins, and other medicinal substances, but their motives were frankly strategic, a matter of gaining the Indians' confidence and beating the devil-worshiping shamans at their own game. What really mattered was the harvest of souls. Every gravely ill Indian was, to a Jesuit, the prize in a contest with the highest possible stakes: either she would die outside the church and suffer eternal torment, or she would confess her sins, enter the fold, and live forever in perfect happiness. Because they knew from experience that healthy converts often strayed from the Christian path after they had been baptized, an outcome more deplorable than simple refusal of baptism, the Jesuits took special satisfaction in baptizing the moribund. Early in the history of the New France mission, Jean de Brebeuf spoke of feelings that would be echoed by other seventeenth-century Jesuits: "The joy that one feels when he has baptized an Indian who dies soon afterwards, and flies directly to Heaven to become an angel, certainly is a joy that surpasses anything that can be imagined...One would like to have the suffering of ten thousand tempests that he might help save one soul, since Jesus Christ for one soul would have willingly shed all his precious blood."

If dying adults were especially prized, dying infgants were even more so, for unlike their pagan parents, they were too young to have sinned. "This is the most certain fruit that we gather in this country," wrote a Jesuit among the unconverted Iroquois, "where it is desirable that the children should die before obtaining the use of their reason." Sick babies exercised an irresistible attraction over these missionaries, who sought them out wherever they went. However, the non-Christian parents of Tekakwitha's homeland were determined to keep them at bay. Unlike the Hurons, who were evangelized a generation earlier, the Iroquois did not necessarily believe that baptism caused death, but they did have the feeling that the missionaries wished to steal their children's souls. Perhaps they could sense something of the attitude of men who could write a sentence containing the chilling phrase, "It is desirable that the children should die." (Footnotes omitted)...(From the chapter entitled aptly enough, Beautiful Death, at pgs. 6-7)


A fascinating, respectful account of Mohawks in early Kahnawake by a Frostback history prof from the University of Toronto who seems to knows his stuff and like it.

Quote:
More about Kahnawake.

More about Canadian gambling regulations and the risk they pose to Internet gambling sites hosted by Quebec Mohawks.


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PostPosted: Mon Jul 10, 2006 11:30 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

Another 'inconvenient truth': Online gambling is greener and better for the planet. SIGN UP today for our Gamble Green Challenge to help stop global warming!


A Short History of Indians in Canada
Stories
Hardcover
By Thomas King, the comic genius behind The Dead Dog Cafe Comedy Hour
and Dead Dog in the City




Quote:
He was going to die. Perhaps today. Certainly before the week was out. He could stay in bed and put it off. But you were only allowed three sick days during the season, and, after that, they carried you out to the first post and left you there. His heart was racing as he swung his legs over the edge, and the pain came back, hard and raw, a grinding, breaking pain that Mason imagined was very much like the pain of a bullet smashing into bone.

Mason showered, stood in the hot, streaming water and the steam, slowly working the leg to life. The hunters would come in through the turnstiles at six o'clock, but they had to walk through three miles of forest before they got to the meadow. Others would take blinds closer to the fence and wait for the seniors to come to them. It was five hundred yards from the first post to the trees, and, with any luck, Mason could make the sanctuary of the woods before the hunters got settled. (From The Closer You Get to Canada....at pgs. 99-100)


One of the darker selections in King's latest collection.

Quote:
Spin the wheel to get your very own Authentic Indian Name.


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PostPosted: Wed May 02, 2007 11:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Poker Nation
Hardcover
By Paris Review editor Andy Bellin




Quote:
The repercussions of cheating were much worse back in the Wild West. A legendary American Indian poker player named Poker Tom was said to have cheated a California merchant named Ah Tia out of $2,000. Two days later, the remains of Poker Tom were apparently fed to members of his own tribe in a stew that Ah Tai (sic) had cooked himself at a county fair. (-- p. 146)


Not even a dyslexic editor can spoil the fun of this poker classic.

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PostPosted: Thu Jun 21, 2007 11:26 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

Another 'inconvenient truth': Online gambling is greener and better for the planet. SIGN UP today for our Gamble Green Challenge to help stop global warming!


Skins
DVD
Directed by First Nations filmmaker Chris Eyre




Quote:
Mogie Yellow Lodge (voiceover of Mogie's final communique, a letter to his younger brother, Rudy, the vigilante cop, before dying of cirrhosis of the liver caused by chronic alcoholism caused by conditions on the Pine Ridge Reservation): ...I'm not afraid to die. No, maybe I lied when I said I'm not afraid. I am very afraid. So be it. My brother, you must do one thing for me. You must take care of Herbie (Mogie's son). You made a life for yourself and you are someone he can look up to. When your turn comes, I'll be waiting to welcome you into the spirit world...if that's where I am. That is what scares me the most. What if the Wovoka was right - that there IS a hell and I get shipped there? Ha-ha. Well, at least I've got a 50-50 chance.


Quote:
More on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.

More on the devastating impact of Gambling for Gold on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota.

More Gambling for Gold.



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PostPosted: Wed Nov 21, 2007 3:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Company of Adventurers
Hardcover
Classic text on the history of Canada's
Hudson's Bay Trading Company
By Peter C. Newman




Quote:
One whimsical example of how profoundly the two cultures differed enlivens a memoir by American painter George Catlin, who observed the behaviour of a group of Indians he guided through Paris in the early 1840s. The natives were not particularly overawed by large buildings nor wildly impressed by the carriages and litters; they managed to suppress any sign of enthusiasm for white women and retained their dignity even when pawed over by various impertinent royal personages assembled to inspect them - but they were utterly flabbergasted by the way Parisian women treated their dogs. The visitors were unable to understand the affection showered on the pooches when they had seen orphanages filled with unwanted children. They could not comprehend the horror on a saleswoman's face when they tried to buy the main course for a traditional dog feast. One of the Indian visitors carefully repoduced a table of Parisian dog-walking habits that ironically presaged later anthropological reports on North American Indians:

Women leading one little dog 432
Women leading two little dogs 71
Women leading three little dogs 5
Women with big dogs following (no string) 80
Women carrying little dogs 20
Women with little dogs in carriages 31

The French visit was followed by a tour of England by a dozen Chipewyan from the HBC territories in 1848. All but three died of pneumonia and English cooking.

... Quite apart from the sensual pleasures involved, HBC men who dallied with daughters of prominent Indian families gained a concentrated course in wilderness survival. Growing up in the relatively urban environment of the British Isles provided no training in snaring rabbits with willow twigs, readying raw furs for market or chewing tough moosehide into pliable moccasins. More important, these liaisons allowed the traders entry into Indian society; the women acted as interpreters and mentors, true partners in a relationship which, when it worked, went far beyond sexual congress. On the most elementary level, it provided HBC men with cheap scalp insurance. Through a simple ceremony à la façon du pays - an impromptu marriage without benefit of clergy - they took "country wives," acquiring personal security and the inestimably beneficial support system of the country wife's family. For their part, the women won access to the relative comforts of living year-round at or near the HBC forts; they gained social prominence and, usually, some form of special consideration for their relatives at the Company stores.

The Indian leaders perceived most of these live-in arrangements as advantageous, because their society operated along strong kinship lines and such semi-permanent partnerships extended family allegiances into the white man's valuable networks. The was, of course, not universally true, but it did happen often enough. Trading Captains calling at Company posts sometimes paid local factors the honour of offering their daughters in country marriages to forge blood-brotherhoods. At another level, living within the intimacy of these wilderness pairings was an ideal way to pass the long postings. The most effective traders were often the veterans of such tacit marriages. "About the only way you could learn the grunts and twists that go with most Indian talk is from a sleeping dictionary," inelegantly concluded a free trader named Andrew Garcia, who spent his life on the frontier.*


Quote:
Daughters of the Country
Hardcover
By Walter O'Meara




* According to Walter O'Meara's Daughters of the Country, two of Garcia's buddies settled in very direct fashion a feud over an Indian girl they both loved. The partners, known only as Fink and Carpenter, had been in the habit of demonstrating their trust in each other by filling a cup full of whisky and taking turns shooting it off each other's heads. To settle the love match, therefore, they decided to prove their good will by repeating their familiar performance. Fink won the coin toss for the first shot. "Hold your noodle steady, Carpenter," the gunman commanded, "and don't spill the whisky." A trigger squeeze later, Carpenter was stone dead with a bullet hole in his forehead. "Aw, shucks, Carpenter," Fink reproached his late partner, "you spilled the whisky." (From the chapter, A Savage Commerce, pgs. 185, 202-203)


Quote:
Company of Adventurers
Audio Cassette
Abridged, unfortunately.
Narrated wonderfully, thrillingly even, by wee
Frostback thespian Gordon Pinsent in the jovial half-honk
peculiar to Canada's east coast




More about Newfoundland dialects.

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PostPosted: Sun Dec 16, 2007 4:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

Another 'inconvenient truth': Online gambling is greener and better for the planet. SIGN UP today for our Gamble Green Challenge to help stop global warming!


DreadfulWater Shows Up
A Novel by Hartley GoodWeather
Hardcover
By Hartley's alter ego, who recently announed his candidacy in the
next Canadian federal election - NDP




Quote:
The good news was that Thumps now had a couple of leads. The dead man's name. His occupation. And why he was at Buffalo Mountain in the first place. Thumps could guess at other bits of information. Al had pointed him in the right direction. If Floyd Small Elk was driving Takashi around, then Takashi had probably been staying at Shadow Ranch, which meant a room and personal effects.

As Thumps slid into his car, he was faced with at least three choices. One, he could go into the mountains and try to find Stick. This wasn't his first choice. If Stick had gone fishing, he could be almost anywhere on the river. If he had gone to the mountains to hide, no one was going to find him.

Two, Thumps could go to Shadow Ranch and nose around. If he was fast enough he might even beat Duke to Takashi's room. This option was potentially dangerous. Even if the sheriff didn't know where Takashi was staying, it wouldn't take him long to find out. And if Duke found Thumps in the room of a dead man, there would be questions that Thumps wouldn't be able to answer.

Or three, he could go back to Buffalo Mountain. After all, it was the scene of the crime. Takashi could have gotten to the resort any number of ways, but almost all them went through Cooley Small Elk, and the sheriff had no doubt questioned him. Thumps wasn't sure how Cooley felt about the law, but if he had as little love for it as his brother had, there was the chance that he might tell Thumps something he had neglected to share with Hockney.

Thumps could feel his eyes begin to droop as he left the townsite and rumbled onto the lease road. All the clever television shows ot the contrary, murder was generally a messy but simple matter. Jealousy, anger, greed. Husbands killed wives. Drunks killed their best friends. Business partners killed each other.

Thumps thought about flipping a coin, but he wasn't really interested in wandering around the mountains, and he certainly wasn't keen to play cat-and-mouse with the sheriff in a dead man's room. Besides the resort was closer. (Chapter Five, pgs. 42-43)


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PostPosted: Tue Jan 01, 2008 3:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

Another 'inconvenient truth': Online gambling is greener and better for the planet. SIGN UP today for our Gamble Green Challenge to help stop global warming!


Kootenai Brown
Canada's *Unknown Frontiersman
Paperback
By William Rodney




Quote:
Fort Benton wasn't the West's healthiest town as the sign below on today's main street indicates. During the frontier era the local paper carried a news item that a horse thief had been caught and promptly hanged from a telegraph pole. The headline said simply, TELEGRAPHED HIM HOME.

Quote:
THE BLOODIEST BLOCK IN THE WEST

"IT'S A TOUGH TOWN, WAL IN THE CENTER OF THE STREET AND KEEP YOUR MOUTH SHUT." GUNSLINGERS WALKED THIS STREET; FEW MADE A REPUTATION, MORE EARNED ETERNITY HERE THAN IN OTHER FABLED WESTERN TOWNS.

INDIANS WERE FAIR GAME. THEIR CORPSES DUMPED IN THE RIVER STARTED WAR AND MASSACRE. MOSE SOLOMON SALOON OWNER ELIMINATED 2 CUSTOMERS ON THE CORNER. LOU MARSHALL ADDED HINCHLEY AND SEVERAL OTHERS GUNNED DOWN ON THIS STREET "WON'T BE MISSED."

POKER WAS PLAYED WITH 6-GUNS ATOP THE TABLES AND FEMALES FROM THE BROTHELS WERE AS TOUGH AS THE MEN. MADAME MUSTACHE BRANDISHED COLTS TO HALT THE LANDING OF A STEAMBOAT CARRYING SMALLPOX. "HOUSES" STAYED OPEN ALL NIGHT. THIS BLOCK WAS LINED WITH SALOONS, CATHOUSES AND GAMBLING DENS - SO LAWLESS IT HAD TO BE CIRCLED BY A CAVALRY TROOP SO A U.S. MARSHAL COULD SERVE WARRANTS ON FIVE OF ITS RESIDENTS. (Cutline and photo of authentic sign at p. 121)


Quote:
... Brown, in order to supplement his income, for the second time in his life became a trader:

Quote:
I remember starting a store at Waterton Lakes on what afterwards became my first homestead ... In the store I had a partner, Fred Kanouse, a well-known character around Macleod and Pincher Creek. Fred and I had a stock valued at $4,000 and cour customers were Indians, mostly Kootenais, Nez Perces, and Flatheads from the Flat-head Reservation in Montana. Customs regulations didn't bother them; we didn't know where the International line was in those days any more than the buffalo did. The Kootenai Indians were friendly with the Blackfeet, but beyond good-humored joking when they chanced to meet in our store, there was not much intermingling. If one got a chance to steal the others horses there was no hesitation on the part of either Kootenais or Blackfeet. No other tribe of Indians that I know of really like the Blackfeet.

Well, we started this store in a little log shack on the Lower Waterton Lake and our supplies were all hauled from Fort Macleod by I.G. Baker bull team... The Kootenais would bring furs out of the mountains and we would trade them dry goods and "wet good" and provisions. We didn't sell much whiskey to the Indians although a good deal of it was consumed on the premises. To sell to the Indians was too risky a proposition though it yielded much profit. Our customers were all Indians and to let them get all the whisky they wanted would mean a carousal in which they might burn up or carry away our stock.

... Indians are naturally great gamblers and are very anxious to take part in all games of chance. Someone taught the Flatheads and Kootenais to play poker and this became their great pastime when they visited the store. It took a card shark to beat them. Kanouse was an expert poker-player so he attended to that part of the business. I was a footracer and a good shot and in competitions on the track and with the rifle I could always beat them. We had two good horses and in horse-racing we also got the best of them. In fact, we beat them at every turn. (-- pgs. 123-124)


Quote:
Quote:
* Note: For a guy who's supposed to be unknown to Canada, Kootenai does pretty well. To wit, his Pioneer Village in Pincher Creek, Alta., opened by the country's Chief Justice, a boost from the Manitoba Historical Society on his exploits in the Red River Valley and a significant entry here on his role as the first park warden of Waterton Lakes.


Oh, yes:

Kootenai Brown
Also titled,
Showdown at Williams Creek
Directed by Allan Kroeker
VHS




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PostPosted: Fri Mar 07, 2008 8:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

Another 'inconvenient truth': Online gambling is greener and better for the planet. SIGN UP today for our Gamble Green Challenge to help stop global warming!


I Heard the Owl Call My Name
Hardcover
By Margaret Craven


Quote:
Teacher's Pet Study Guide




Quote:
"It is an old village - nobody knows how old. According to the myth, after the great flood two brothers were the only human beings left alive in the world, and they heard a voice speak and it said, 'Come, Wolf, lend them your skin that they may go fleetly and find themselves a home.' And in the wolf's skin the brothers moved south until they came to a small and lovely valley on a river's edge, surrounded by high mountains, and here they returned the skin to their friend, the wolf, and they threw a magic stone to see which one would build his village here, and Quelele, the younger, moved on, and Khawadelugha, the elder, built his house, and in his dances he moved right as even now the dancers moved right because the wolf moved right, and on his totem he carved a wolf as one of the crests of his tribe.

"The Indian name of the village is Quee which means 'inside place,' and according to the tribal history its site was chosen wisely because the river, its access, is treacherous and easily defended. But the enemy was wise also, and in the great tribal wars it came through a mountain pass and down the river, and the spirit that lives in Whoop-Szo, the Noisy Mountain, that is across the river and towers over the village, heard the enemy coming and sent down a slide and buried it.

"Now Kingcome is known as a compact, Christian village, and this means that to run smoothly the elected chief, the vicar and the agent from the Indian Affairs Dpartment must be co-operative and wise, and though I am sure the Lord could pass a small miracle and manage this, He seldom does. Once there was a chief who agreed with anyone on anything. Once there was an agent who said there was no use educating the Indian because if you did, you'd have to find him a job, and he was bound to die off anyway. And once the church sent a man to Kingcome who had never worked out well anywhere because it was sure here he could do no harm. All were wrong, and the village survived them.

"The Indian knows his village and feels for his village as no white man for his country, his town, or even for his own bit of land. His village is not the strip of land four miles long and three miles wide that is his as long as the sun rises and the moon sets. The myths are the village and the winds and the rains. The river is the village, and the black and white killer whales that herd the fish to the end of the inlet the better to gobble them. The village is the salmon who comes up the river to spawn the seal who follows the salmon and bites off his head, the bluejay whose name is like the sound he makes - 'Kwiss-Kwiss.' The villlage is the talking bird, the owl, who calls the name of the man who is going to die, and the silver-tipped grizzly who ambles into the village, and the little white speck that is the mountain goat on Whoop-Szo.

"The fifty-foot totem by the church is the village, and the Cedar-man who stands at the bottom holding up the eagle, the wolf and the raven! And a voice said to the great cedar tree in Bond Sound, 'Come forth, Tzakamayi and be a man,' and he came forth to be the Cedar-man, the first mangod of the people and more powerful than all others."(From Chapter 1, pgs. 11-13)


About Tsawateniuk (Kingcombe Inlet) Kwakwaka'wakw immortalized in the novel:

Quote:
Harper, John (with Bob Sam and Chief Adam Dick) Coastal & Ocean Resources Inc., Sidney, B.C.

Clam Gardens of the Pacific Northwest: Sitka to Puget Sound
Clam gardens are areas of the intertidal zone that were cleared by aboriginal peoples for the purpose of clam harvesting and culturing. To date, several hundred of these clam gardens have been identified and mapped. The most southerly site identified to date is in Brentwood Bay near Victoria BC. The most northerly site is in Sitka Sound. Traditional knowledge indicates that construction of a clam garden entitled its creator to ownership and that such ownership would ensure sustainable harvesting at the site. (From Sharing our Knowledge: A Conference of Tsimshian, Haida and Tlingit Tribes and Clans, 2007).


Quote:
I Heard the Owl Call My Name
Audio CD
Narrated by popular U.S. reader, Frank Muller




Muller's reading is adequate, but we're open to new possibilities for this small, classic tale - one of few that portray First Nations as respectfully and lyrically as they richly deserve.


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PostPosted: Tue Apr 01, 2008 1:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

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From Impossible Odds:

Quote:
Canadian Geographic
Magazine Subscription
No reservations
The Landmark Treaty of British Columbia's Tsawwassen First
Nation
will abolish its reserve, add to its land base and end the tax exemption that has long defined Indian identity in Canada. Opposition
is fierce, but the province's chief negotiator argues that the agreement will give Tsawwassen what they seek most - control of their destiny.

By Kiwi treaty negotiating champ, Katherine Gordon
April, 2008


Quote:
More about the Tsawwassen treaty and how hillbilly Canada protects its valuable farmland - some of the world's most productive.





Quote:
The federal government exerts its control over qualifying aboriginal people in Canada with a 132-year-old statute known as the Indian Act. The legislation provides a tax exemption for Indians living and working on reserves and annual program funding delivered by INAC. But the Indian Act also has significant drawbacks. INAC's $5.5 billion budget for the services it provides to Indian reserves is split among more than 1,200 organizations across the country, including 640 Indian bands, or First Nations. INAC funding is never adequate to meet community needs, and it is difficult for bands to raise their own revenue. Nobody on a reserve owns land outright, either individually or collectively, making it next to impossible to borrow money from a bank to build or buy a house or start a business on a reserve. Band governments, in the form of elected chiefs and councils, have limited bylaw-making powers and are shackled by a heavy-handed federal bureaucracy that sets priorities for how government funding is spent on reserves. Bands must troop, hat in hand, to Ottawa for permission to undertake major initiatives. ...

(Chief Kim) Baird's vision for the treaty included three principal elements: land for housing, community and economic ventures; self-government; and finally, cash. ...

Baird proposed, for example, that the treaty include 1,172 hectares of crown land - representing less than one per cent of the territory to which the Tsawwassen claimed aboriginal title - far in excess of what the two governments had in mind. The same was true of cash. The governments offered $10 million, a quarter of what Baird and her financial advisers had asked for. As for governance, the Tsawwassen wanted to ensure their powers would have constitutional protection: an abhorrent idea to the provincial government in power at that time.

In the end - nearly five years later - the Tsawwassen came down on land, the governments went up on cash and the province caved on constitutional protection of self-government. At the signing of the treaty in December, 2006, Jim Prentice, then Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, acknowledged in front of the Tsawwassen community that the sun had finally set on his role in their lives: "This treaty will provide you with the tools and authority to take control of your own future." ...

... Farmers in Delta are fiercely protective of the municipality's dwindling agricultural lands and want to prevent possible development on the property the Tsawwwassen will assume as part of the treaty, much of which falls on prime vegetable and berry farmland. Farming associations criticized the transfer, as did most Vancouver area municipal governments and several members of the provincial legislature. ... In 2004, the municipality (Delta) launched legal action against the provincial government in an unsuccessful attempt to stop it from signing the treaty. (For more on the encroachment of valuable agricultural land, see p. 44 of the treaty).

Opposition to the agreement from other First Nations has been equally emphatic. Numerous groups have asserted that the Tsawwassen's treaty lands lie withinin their own traditional territories and should not be transferred until their own rights to those lands have been addressed. The Semiahamoo First Nation in nearby White Rock and an alliance of Vancouver Island First Nations launched legal proceedings in June 2007 in an attempt to halt further progress on the treaty. Their case was rejected in the B.S. Supreme Court in November, 2007.

Closer to home, at Canoe Pass on the Fraser River, where the Tsawwassen will have ownership of several parcels of land, Raymond Wilson is at the forefront of a drive by the Hwlitsum First Nation to gain its own land. Fearful that there will be none left for his people, Wilson has fought the Tsawwassen every step of the way during the past 14 years. He, too, has so far been unsuccessful.

Nor is the opposition just local. First Nations from the Fraser Valley that have begun their own treaty negotiations have banded together with those on Vancouver Island in an attempt to force governments to change what have, until now, been non-negotiable mandates, such as the policy on removing the tax exemption. A unified front, they say, is essential to success; in agreeing to accept such policies, the Tsawwassen First Nation has let them down.

Others outside the process are just as adamant. ...

In addition to the external resistance, 30 Tsawwassen residents actively opposed the deal. ...

Some feared losing their government overseers, on whom they have come to depend. "We'll be losing INAC's responsibility for us," says Bertha Williams. ... "Who will we turn to then?"

... She considers the tax exemption to be part of her identity. "It's who we are now. There's no other place in the world where people have a special status like this." (-- pgs. 54-60)



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PostPosted: Thu Apr 10, 2008 9:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

ANOTHER 'inconvenient truth': Online gambling is greener and better for the planet. SIGN UP today for our Gamble Green Challenge to help stop global warming!


From Impossible Odds:

British Columbia Magazine
Magazine Subscription
Wilderness warrior Betty Krawczyk
Why British Columbia's feistiest great-
grandmother is willing to go to jail
for nature
.
By Brian Payton
Spring, 2007


Quote:
More of the frankly appalling way Canada's B.C. 'BILLIES protect their unique, pristine, fragile environment.

View Betty's blog for B.C. eco-protest updates.





Quote:
Betty Krawczyk believes that citizens are obliged to speak up when faced with injustice. The 78-year-old grandmother has scolded government, inudstry, and even fellow conservationists in defence of British Columbia's wilderness. Her outspoken manner inspires some, goads others - and has cost her almost two years in cumulative prison terms. (emphasis added)

Krawczyk's remarkable journey has taken her from an impoverished childhood in southern Louisiana to the front lines of B.C.'s environmental movement. While raising her eight children, she found time to pen more than 200 fiction stories in the true-confessions genre ("I was his his love slave") for popular women's magazines - before taking up the cause of the Women's Movement in the late 1960s. During the Vietnam War, she emigrated to Canada after her first son joined the airforce and her second was about to be drafted.

Forty years, four marriages and divorces, eight grandchildren later, the Vanocuver resident is probably best known for her role in the Clayoquot Sound protests of 1993.

On a sunny afternoon, Krawczyk sat down beside an arbutus tree to reflect on her life in B.C.'s environmental movement. Her perch afforded a view of West Vancouver's Eagleridge Bluffs high above Horseshoe Bay, where she and other protesters spent six weeks on a blockade last summer to protest a highway expansion that has since proceeded through the area. ...

Q. What defines a successful campaign?

A. Clayoquot was successful in that is now a biosphere reserve. But it is still threatened, and I may have to go back there. For the moment, it seems all right. The Elaho was a success. It is now protected. The Walbran was not a success. The courts protected the logging companies. ...

Q. Were you ever frightened in your work as an activist?

A. That's a hard one. I guess I'm not frightened. I just take one day at a time.

My biggest worry is for the safety of the people out on isolated blockades. We were in the Walbran for over three weeks. It was very isolated and there had been some bad violence. Young protesters were attacked and it has not been brought to court. I keep in touch with the press and the RCMP; it's the press that keeps violence down. ...

Q. Why can't you work within the system?

A. Primarily, because there is too much money involved.

Corporations buy off the democratic process. They have influence and raw power. So it is very difficult, even in a system like ours, a system that is supposed to be democratic. It's not just our environment that's lost if we don't act decisively - democracy is lost.

So many people think that if they go vote every four years, their duty as a citizen is done. Your duty as a citizen is not done. Your duty as a citizen is to take part in the decisions being made, not to just pick someone else to do it for you...Only we as citizens can make changes. We mustn't depend on government to do it for us. Because they won't. (-- pgs. 52-56)


Two kinds of Canuck justice - depending on the protester:

Ontario injunction barring native protesters:

Quote:
Yahoo News
Yet another corporate medium but a no-cost one
Blockade of eastern Ont. rail line ends;
protesters warn of further actions

By Allison Jones
April 21/07


Quote:
DESERONTO, Ont. (CP) - A key organizer of an aboriginal blockade, which paralyzed passenger and freight rail traffic on the busy Toronto-Montreal corridor, is warning that the protest that ended early Saturday is just the beginning in a series of "escalating" actions.

"We've identified targets as part of this campaign, one being the railway, one being provincial highways and one being the town (of Deseronto) itself," said Shawn Brant. "The disruption on the CN line was a first in a series of economic disruptions, the first in a campaign." he said. "The campaign calls for an ever escalating degree." The next target has already been chosen and plans to finalize the next action are in the works, said Brant, who commented Saturday morning at the site of contention in the dispute - a gravel quarry that the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte say is their land.

Though the protesters originally said they would stay at the railway blockade for 48 hours, it ended peacefully after about 30 hours at 6 a.m. Saturday, after a sleepless night of negotiations with provincial police and other officials. Protesters said they chose to end it early over fears of a violent conclusion. A court injunction ordered the protesters and the dilapidated school bus off the tracks with arrests warned as a consequence, but the order was never enforced by police. No arrests have been made at this point, said Ontario Provincial Police Sgt. Kristine Rae. "We're pleased that it was a peaceful resolution." ...

Condominiums are planned using gravel from the quarry for an area known as the Culbertson Land Tract, which is on a section of land given to the Six Nations in 1793. The Mohawks contend they never relinquished any part of it. (emphasis added)


B.C. injunction barring Eagleridge Bluffs protesters:

Quote:
News 1130
Noisy Commercial Radio
Betty Krawczyk sentencing leads
to courthouse occupation

By Jim Goddard
March 5/07


Quote:
Demonstrators upset with a 10-month sentence given to Betty Krawczyk for contempt of court have now occupied the lobby of the Vancouver law courts. Chanting "Shame, shame" and beating drums, a dozen protesters took over the lobby area near the Supreme Court registry office. Sherriffs have lined up to prevent them from entering the office. Betty Krawczyk was sentenced to 10 months in jail for criminal contempt of court for her role in protests against highway construction through the Eagleridge Bluffs in West Vancouver. The 78-year-old environmentalist, who has already spent more than two years in jail for anti-logging protests, has been given another lengthy term in B.C. Supreme Court. Justice Brenda Brown ruled last month that Krawczyk's breach of a court order "was open, continuous and flagrant". And Krawczyk is not being given credit for time already served in jail. (emphasis added)


Betty's lawyer, Cameron Ward told the CBC Early Edition in an interview early in March that the judiciary is wrong to enforce an injunction - a civil remedy intended to keep parties to a dispute in the same position until the dispute is tried - as if the case was in substance a criminal matter.



Quote:
More about both protests and the different treatment of protesters.

More examples of two-tiered Canuck justice.

More on eco-protests, the Tsawwassen treaty and the wacky way B.C. 'BILLIES protect their priceless pristine wilderness and some of the world's richest agricultural land.



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PostPosted: Thu Jul 03, 2008 9:03 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

From Impossible Odds:

British Columbia
Magazine Subscription
Our history in pictures
From the gold-rush frenzy of 1858 to our growing Olympic fever in 2008, photographers have been there to capture a visual record of the making of British Columbia. Join us for a phtographic journey through the past 150 years.
By Jane Nahirnny
Summer, 2008


Quote:
More B.C. history.





Quote:
Cariboo Wagon Road

This iconic photograph of travellers on the Cariboo Wagon Road is synonymous with our province's pioneering history. Gold strikes along the Fraser River brought thousands of enterprising California prospectors northward in the spring of 1858 - so many that the British government hastily founded the colony of British Columbia that fall to establish its claim on the region.

From the Fraser, nugget hunters moved north to even greater riches in the Cariboo. Roadhouses, saloons, and whole towns popped up overnight, and the freshly minted colony invested more than $1-million to construct a good road between Yale, on the south Fraser, and the Cariboo gold fields.

(The original route, judge Matthew Baillie Begbie decreed, was "... utterly impassable for any animal except a man, a goat or dog.") Here, freight wagons on the Cariboo Wagon Road make the perilous descent down "Eight Mile Bluff" near Spences Bridge, circa 1867. (Photo caption, p. 35)


Quote:
James Douglas

More of the Hudson's Bay Company of Adventurers.

right: History books call him "the father of British Columbia." As governor of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, James Douglas defused the threat of American annexation, maintained law and order in the gold fields, built towns in the Interior and ordered the construction of the Cariboo Wagon Road. But few know the humble beginnings of the former fur trader and Hudson's Bay Company Chief Factor. Born to a Scottish plantation owner and a "free colored" woman in British Guiana (now Guyana), Douglas was shipped off to Canada at 16 to work in the Hudson's Bay Company. His wife, Amelia, was also of mixed blood, with an Irish-Canadian father and Cree mother. To end up as a knight and lady of the British Empire was an usual reward, observed historian and author John Adams in Old Square Toes and His Lady. (Photo caption, p. 36)

Old Square Toes and His Lady
Hardcover
By John D. Adams




Quote:
Cariboo Camels

Frank Laumeister's scheme to get rich using camels to carry freight during the Cariboo Gold Rush failed miserably. Ill-suited for the rocky terrain, the animals created chaos on the trail as their peculiar odor caused pack mules to bolt. Photo: Royal BC Museum, BC Archives A-00348) (Photo caption, p. 37)


Quote:
Saloons aplenty

left: Hotels and saloons, such as Nelson's Royal Hotel shown here in 1898, gave prospectors and pioneers a warm place to congregate over a glass of beer or whiskey. At the height of the gold rush in 1862, Victoria listed 60 saloons among its many business establishments. During its heyday in the mid 1890s, the mining town of Sandon, about 100 kilometres north of Nelson, offered its 4,000 to 5,000 residents 29 hotels, 28 saloons, an opera house, and one of Canada's largest red-light districts. By 1897, nearby Rossland had 7,000 people and 42 saloons. (Photo caption, p. 43)


Quote:
Far, far from home, we miners roam,
We feel its joys no more,
These we have sold for yellow gold,
On Fraser River's shore.

(Far From Home, a folk song from 1858, p. 58)


Quote:
Fraser River War

How British Columbia became a colony


The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 attracted some 30,000 miners from America into the British-controlled region of New Caledonia. Propelled by liquor and gold fever, they overwhelmed the Fraser Canyon's Nlaka'pamux people, who had been collecting gold on the river's banks for years. Friction turned to anger, and anger to bloodshed. Accounts from the time allude to hundreds of deaths.

When word of the violence reached James Douglas, then governor of the British colony of Vancouver Island, he was gravely concerned. Already he knew a strong lobbgy of Americans citing 'manifest destiny' sought to annex New Caledonia. The killing of U.S. citizens in the Fraser Canyon would only fuel their fervor and could prompt the 1,500 American troops stationed across the border to charge north to protect their compatriots.

To keep any of this news from reaching London, Douglas suppressed official accounts of the Fraser River War, and hurried to the mainland to meet with frightened miners who were demanding protection.

By the time he arrived, the worst was over. Chief Spintlum had successfully advocated peace to his fellow Nlaka'pamux chiefs and, in meetings with militia leader Henry Snyder, had negotiated an end ot the violence. Douglas helped to cement the truce by allocating land along the river to the native people in verbal agreements - generous settlements that were ignored by susequent government officials.

To ward off further threats from the Americans, Douglas worked with British officials to create the Crown colony of British Columbia in November, 1858, and served as its governor for five and a half years. (-- p. 59)


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PostPosted: Wed Jul 30, 2008 1:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

From Gambling on God:

The New Yorker
Magazine Subscription
The Headstrong Historian
Fiction

By Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
June 23/08


Quote:
More of the story.





Quote:
Nwamgba was alarmed by how indiscriminately the missionaries flogged students: for being late, for being lazy, for being slow, for being idle, and, once, as Anikwenwa told her, Father Lutz put metal cuffs around a girl’s hands to teach her a lesson about lying, all the time saying in Igbo—for Father Lutz spoke a broken brand of Igbo—that native parents pampered their children too much, that teaching the Gospel also meant teaching proper discipline. The first weekend Anikwenwa came home, Nwamgba saw welts on his back, and she tightened her wrapper around her waist and went to the school and told the teacher that she would gouge out the eyes of everyone at the mission if they ever did that to him again. She knew that Anikwenwa did not want to go to school and she told him that it was only for a year or two, so that he could learn English, and although the mission people told her not to come so often, she insistently came every weekend to take him home. Anikwenwa always took off his clothes even before they had left the mission compound. He disliked the shorts and shirt that made him sweat, the fabric that was itchy around his armpits. He disliked, too, being in the same class as old men, missing out on wrestling contests.

But Anikwenwa’s attitude toward school slowly changed. Nwamgba first noticed this when some of the other boys with whom he swept the village square complained that he no longer did his share because he was at school, and Anikwenwa said something in English, something sharp-sounding, which shut them up and filled Nwamgba with an indulgent pride. Her pride turned to vague worry when she noticed that the curiosity in his eyes had diminished. There was a new ponderousness in him, as if he had suddenly found himself bearing the weight of a heavy world. He stared at things for too long. He stopped eating her food, because, he said, it was sacrificed to idols. He told her to tie her wrapper around her chest instead of her waist, because her nakedness was sinful. She looked at him, amused by his earnestness, but worried nonetheless, and asked why he had only just begun to notice her nakedness.

When it was time for his initiation ceremony, he said he would not participate, because it was a heathen custom to be initiated into the world of spirits, a custom that Father Shanahan had said would have to stop. Nwamgba roughly yanked his ear and told him that a foreign albino could not determine when their customs would change, and that he would participate or else he would tell her whether he was her son or the white man’s son. Anikwenwa reluctantly agreed, but as he was taken away with a group of other boys she noticed that he lacked their excitement. His sadness saddened her. She felt her son slipping away from her, and yet she was proud that he was learning so much, that he could be a court interpreter or a letter writer, that with Father Lutz’s help he had brought home some papers that showed that their land belonged to them. Her proudest moment was when he went to his father’s cousins Okafo and Okoye and asked for his father’s ivory tusk back. And they gave it to him. (-- p. 72)


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PostPosted: Wed Oct 15, 2008 7:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

British Country Life
Magazine Subscription
Spectator
Against the odds
By Carla Carlisle
Feb. 8/07




Quote:
... In Tunica, Mississippi, everybody is poor: white folks, black folks and Choctaws, the descendants of that brave tribe who fought at the side of President Andrew Jackson in the Battle of New Orleans. He rewarded them in 1830 with the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which took away their land and forced them onto the Indian Territory in Oklahoma.

... By the mid-1960s, unemployment among Tunica's Choctaws was 80%, education for most ended at age 12, and the main medication for despair was alcohol.

Roll forward to 1994. A quirk of the Indian Land Claim cases a decade earlier means that casinos are legal in Nevada and New Jersey, but only Indians, on their 'sovereign' land, can open casinos in most other states. The Choctaws in Tunica decide to build a casino, complete with a 100-room resort hotel and three restaurants, with 400 more rooms, a golf course and a theme park on the drawing boards. Built under a management contract with a Las Vegas gaming company and its activities stringently supervised by a tribal gaming commission, the casino thrives. Ten years later, the Choctaw's resort in Tunica is the 'third largest gaming destination' in the United States. Only Las Vegas and Atlantic City are bigger.

It's mind-boggling. Now there are seven casinos, creating a total of more than 15,000 jobs. And they've used the casino economy to invest in projects that will last: 1,000 new homes on the reservation, a major hospital, a nursing home, day-care centres. Google 'Tunica, Mississippi' and you'll find a cameo of Dubai rising out of cotton fields. ...

Although I believe that gambling is a sucker's game, I try to avoid words like 'warped', 'sleazy', 'wastelands of crime'. But the Indian casinos are instructive. The money made in Tunica, Mississippi goes to the Choctaw Indians, who invest it back into their community. ... (-- p. 108)


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